Terror attacks by Islamic extremist is resulting in a worsening environment of hate against Muslims worldwide.

Response from professor regarding topic and bibliography:

“Interesting choice – timely, appropriate to our coursework, and flexible enough for you to draw out a good series of arguments. I do wonder if what you’re in fact arguing is the about the publicity of attacks. There has always been this type of violence worldwide, and an existential or literal threat to Americans (swap “communists” for “Muslims” through the decades, and people had the same responses…). How the attacks are framed for our (Western) consumption, though – how we receive news and info about it, in other words – certainly contributes to what you observe: a worsening environment for people who may resemble or share some characteristics with those who commit the acts.

The bibliography is impressive, as are your notes and plans for the sources. What course text do you see relating here? Aslan’s (https://n.pr/1rnAxm6) is an obvious choice, but other sources make the same observations about such patterns, even if in relation to different ethnic groups.””

== Annotated Bibliography ==

Kundnani, A. (2014). The Muslims are coming!: Islamophobia, extremism, and the domestic war on terror.
Kundnani’s book provides an in-depth examination of how the West’s perception of Muslims’ culture, identity, ethnicity, and ideology changed after the 9/11 attack. Muslim culture is now perceived as alien and incompatible with Western culture by the people with anti-Islamic prejudice. He believes the West’s anti-Islam and anti-Muslim prejudice is revealed in the form of “war on terror”. Governments have shifted their attention to domestic terrorists who have become the focus of sprawling counterterrorism structures of policing and surveillance in the United States and across Europe. According to his theory, “Islamist” identity is viewed as the root cause of terrorism and that Muslims as terrorists.

Norton, B. (2015). Our terrorism double standard: After Paris, let’s stop blaming Muslims and take a hard look at ourselves. Retrieved March 23, 2016, from https://www.salon.com/2015/11/14/our_terrorism_double_standard_after_paris_lets_stop_blaming_muslims_and_take_a_hard_look_at_ourselves/
Norton article states that the vast majority of terrorist attacks in recent years were motivated by ethno-nationalism or separatism and not religiously motivated. However, these tragic events are constantly being used by anti-Muslim bigots to push their hatred. His research shows that less than two percent of terrorist attacks from 2009 to 2013 were inspired by religion. That is a stark difference on how it is being portrayed in the media. This misconception has lead to the increased hostility towards Muslims.

Kumar, D. (2014). Mediating Racism: The New McCarthyites and the Matrix of Islamophobia. Middle East Journal Of Culture & Communication, 7(1), 9-26. doi:10.1163/18739865-00701001
There has been an increase in anti-Muslim racism in the twenty-first century. Kumar argues there is larger matrix of Islamophobia includes not only the far right but the liberal establishment. He recounts the ‘Ground Zero Mosque’ controversy, a project that was going to be locate a few blocks from the former World Trade Center site. The Mosque was going to be a recreation facility that would welcome all members and promote greater understanding of Islam. Initial media coverage of the project was relatively benign, until Pamela Geller posted a blog entry titled ‘Monster Mosque Pushes Ahead in Shadow of World Trade Center Islamic Death and Destruction’. He goes on to demonstrate how both the Democratic and Republican parties took positions that ranged from neutral to downright hostile towards the project. His main point is that many people and groups participated in demonizing Muslims in a variety of different ways.

Matindoost, L. (2015). Media representation of Muslim youth in Australia. Media Development, 62(3), 33-36.
Australia is also struggling with the marginalization, exclusion, and unfair treatment of Muslims. Matindoost believes the main culprit in the development of Islamophobic sentiments in Australia is the media, which has been depicting “Muslim Youth” as a threat to the national security. They portray Muslims as extremists who want to “wipe out” the West and that they have incompatible values. Australia already has as anti-immigration political climate that has strong negative sentiments towards the minorities, especially Muslims who are viewed as a group that has failed to integrate in to Australian society.

Muravchik, J. (2015). Muslims and Terror: The Real Story. Commentary, 139(3), 37-46. Retrieved March 22, 2016, from https://www.commentarymagazine.com/articles/muslims-and-terror-the-real-story-1/
Muravchik’s article provides a commentary on Islamic violence. He addresses the fact that the majority of Muslims reject such murderous acts as those of the Islamic State or of the Kouachis and Coulibaly. He provides many quotes from high level officials reiterating this point. For example, French President François Hollande stated “these terrorists, these fanatics have nothing to do with the Islamic religion.” He also cites a Gallup poll conducted right after 9/11 of nine predominantly Muslim countries and found that majorities in most of these countries judged the attacks to be “totally unjustifiable.”

== Additional Current Affairs ==
https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/fact-checker/wp/2016/04/25/trumps-false-claim-that-isis-is-making-a-fortune-on-libyan-oil/

https://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/muslim-woman-attacked_us_57289b7ae4b0bc9cb0447aed

https://www.cbsnews.com/news/terror-in-molenbeek-schaerbeek-brussels-belgium-islamophobia/

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