The development of slow travel in Thailand



Chapter One: Introduction

The potential title for my dissertation is ‘The development of slow travel in Thailand’.The impact of slow travel in the tourism industry has been totally neglected. This raises a lot of concern owing to the continued thriving of the tourism and aviation industries. This research intends to investigate the development and impact of slow travel as an alternative mode of transport in the tourism industry (Dickinson& Lumsdon, 2011).

Potential aims and objectives

The research is aimed at providing better recommendations for travel modes in the tourism sector. The following research questions will guide the study and literature review:

1)      What are the documented effects of tourism on climate change?

2)      What are the most appropriate forms of tourism identity?

3)      Are there structured strategy suggestions for use of slow travel for reduction of the greenhouse effect?

4)      What will be the effect of such strategies on tourist levels and travel costs?

The climate change deliberations have highlighted that flights have particularly detrimental greenhouse gas effects due to the forcing effect of emanations at high altitude (Eijgelaar& Peteers, 2010; Dickinson, 2008).


Slow travel is established to be an effective form of transport in tour travel because it reduces the global environmental damage caused by the result of the GHG emissions (Dickinson & Lumsdon, 2010). Research conducted by Robinsons and Lumsdon (2011) found that the assorted construal of slow travel by the current slow travel users are not all favorable to lesser GHG emissions. There is inadequate study in relation to travel and personage of the population both at home and away from home (Barr et al, 2009). Additionally, the perception of slow travel as a way of promoting socio-cultural interaction and environmental admiration has been ignored by most tourists yet the essence of tourism is exploring and finding pleasure in new cultural, social and economic environments(Mintel, 2009).

Background to the potential topic of study

The increasing climatic changes due to the greenhouse effect need to be addressed in order to preserve the global environment. Fast travel contributes largely to the green house effect due to the GHG fumes emitted by the carriages. Thailand’s tourism industry is thriving over time. There needs to be a better way for tour and travel with respect to the modes of transport (Guiver, 2007).

Tourism travel is a great contributor to the climate change with regards to the greenhouse effect due to excessive emanation of carbon by flights (Dickinson&Lumsdon, 2010; Giddens, 1990). While the tourism sector is flourishing from the international perspective across all countries, the long-term negative implications of air and car transport on climate change has been neglected.

There isliterature based on various factors such asthe nature of the tourism industry and the mode of travel encouraged in the tourism industry with regards to the climatic changes.Dickinson and Lumsdon describe the probability of slow travel to provide a more considerate and fulfilling option that positively supports destinations and minimizes tourism’s local and global implications (2009).

Pangboume asserts that though Robinsons and Lumsdon provide an up-to-date perception of the tourism industry and slow travel, there is need for more comprehensive literature with clear chapter definitions highlighting the current problems facing the tourism industry (2011). Due to the increasing awareness of the greenhouse effect in the U.S and Western Europe, there is a possibility of the growth of the slow travel market (Euro Monitor International, 2007; Dolnicar, Crouch & Long, 2008).

According to Becken (2007), reduction of the tourism carbon effect requires better forms of tourism identity. The author’s data show that there is little room for advancement.

That predictions have been conducted about the growth in the aviation industry  (Bows, Anderson, & Peeters, 2009) in addition to the rising ascendancy of the private car is a probable estimation of tourism’s substantial contribution to changes in the climate by 2050 (Dubois & Ceron, 2006a; UNWTO-UNEP-WMO, 2008). Elsewhere, Gardner & Abraham (2007) suggest that there is need for campaigns against car use misconceptions.

Research conducted on green house gas emissions by tourism travel show that the total effect of the emissions in any given tourism travel basing on the mode of transport, the distance travelled, the intensity of activities participates at the destination and accommodation, and the length of stay is approximately 50-97.5% (G¨ossling, 2002). These emissions are contradictory to the European Union 1990 estimate objectives by 2050 which are approximately 60-80% (Bows et al., 2009).

The shift from cars and flights to lesser carbon forms of transport requires thorough exploration of other approaches to travel development that address both structural and behavioural changes (G¨ossling, Hall, Lane, & Weaver, 2008; Randles & Mander, 2009; Scott, Peeters, & G¨ossling, 2010; Eijgelaar& Peteers, 2010). The niche between global climatic concern and the consequent behavioral patterns in tourism should be addressed (Anable, Lane, & Kelay, 2006; Becken, 2007). Molz (2009) suggests that tourists should embrace slow travel as a way of improving cultural interactions and appreciation of the surrounding.

Slow travel promotes environmental admiration (Euro Monitor International, 2007; Mintel, 2009).This is because the tourists will have sufficient time to interact with the place, observe their culture and appreciate their way of life. The essence of tourism is to get access to new cultural, economic and social environment. Slow travel is an essential aspect for maximum achievement of the goals of tourism (Mintel, 2009). It should therefore be adopted by most of the tourists in order to promote social interaction on top of reduction of environmental pollution. Several writers have acknowledged the narrow scope in reviewing the extensive literature body (Dickinson & Robbins, 2009; Guiver, 2007; Lumsdon, Downward, & Cope, 2004; Ritchie, 1998).

More literature on slow travel and its prospective to facilitate the tourism industry to shift into a lower-carbon gear and become more sustainable is required. Expanding the research net for destination advancement is imperative to the institutional framework for governance processes in destination regions that are able to embed the shift to low-carbon lifestyles generally into their strategies for economic development and spatial planning. There is also the need to conduct extensive research on the impact of travel levels and travel costs. The research will also cover ways in which the government can help in improving tourism by slow travel and how the travelers can appreciate slow travel as a mode of environmental conservation and social interaction. There is considerable possibility for slow travel as a climate change mitigation andadaptation strategy for tourism (Lumsdon, 2000).

Potential methodology

This research will determine the development and impact of slow travel as an alternative form of transport in Thailand’s tourism sector. This study will encompass both primary data collection methodologies because this provides an iterative and a flexible advance. Additionally, the descriptive research method will be employed. The possibility of this method being quick and cheap is high. Alternative explanations particularly causation inferences and unanticipated hypotheses are very crucial. The method will be essential in gathering all the necessary information about the current travel condition in relation to tourism. Of course the design and choice methods will be modified constantly in the event of analysis during data collection.

Questionnaire surveys will be supplied randomly to selected Thailand travelers. The interviews will be employed in providing qualitative imminent into the statistics collected. The secondary data will be retrieved from all literature material on tourism, GHG emissions and travel.

The qualitative methods employed will describe the relationship of GHG emissions variable with the tourism travel variable. This method will utilize the investigation of quantitative components which lack standard measures such as beliefs, opinions, attitudes and behavior. Qualitative data will be based on discursive psychology which particularly centers on social interface and how talking achieves asocial rationale (Edley, 2001).

The basic population for this study consists of Thailand travelers. Generally, these respondents will be questioned about the contemporary status of tourism travel and their views about the impact of the satisfactory modes of transport used.

The respondents will be required to fill out a self-administered questionnaire. Ideally, the respondents will grade each statement in the questionnaire using Likert scale (Bennett, 1991). I will require the guidance of a tutor in this research.















Anable, J., Lane, B., & Kelay, T. (2006). An evidence based review of public attitudes to climate

change and transport behaviour. London: Department for Transport.

Barr, S., Shaw, G., Coles, T., & Prillwitz, J. (2009). “A holiday is a holiday”: Practicing sustainability,home and away. Journal of Transport Geography, 18(3), 474–481.

Becken, S. (2007). Tourists’ perception of international air travel’s impact on the global climate andpotential climate change policies. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 15(4), 351–368.

Bennett M. (1991). Methodology. UCLA

Bows, A., Anderson, K., & Peeters, P. (2009). Air transport, climate change and tourism. Tourismand Hospitality Planning & Development, 6(1), 7–20.

Ceron, J.P., & Dubois, G. (2007). Limits to tourism? A backcasting scenario for sustainable tourismmobility in 2050. Tourism and Hospitality Planning & Development, 4(3), 191–209.

Dickinson, J. (2008, January 3–5). Travelling slowly: An exploration of the discourse of holiday

travel. Universities’ Transport Studies Group Annual Conference, Portsmouth.

Dickinson, J.E., & Lumsdon, L. (2010). Slow travel and tourism. London: Earthscan.

Dickinson J., Lumsdon M. & Robinson D. (2011) “Slow travel: issues for tourism and climate change”. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 19:3, 281-300. Routledge

Dickinson, J.E., & Robbins, D. (2009). “Other people, other times and special places”: A social

representations perspective of cycling in a tourism destination. Tourism and Hospitality: Planningand Development, 6(1), 69–85.

Dickinson, J.E., Robbins, D., & Fletcher, J. (2009). Representation of transport: A rural destinationanalysis. Annals of Tourism Research, 36, 103–123.

Dolnicar, S., Crouch, G., & Long, P. (2008). Environmentally friendly tourists: What do we reallyknow about them? Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 16(2), 197–210.

Dubois, G., & Ceron, J.P. (2006a). Tourism/leisure greenhouse gas emissions forecasts for 2050:

Factors for change in France. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 14(2), 172–191.

Edley, N. (2001). Analyzing masculinity: Interpretative repertoires, ideological dilemmas and subjectpositions. InM.Wetherell, S. Taylor, & S.J. Yates (Eds.), Discourse as data: A guide for analysis(pp. 189–228). Milton Keynes: The Open University.

Eijgelaar, E., Thaper, C., & Peeters, P. (2010). Antarctic cruise tourism: The paradoxes of ambassadorship,“last chance tourism”, and greenhouse gas emissions. Journal of Sustainable Tourism,18(3), 337–354.

Euromonitor International. (2007). WTM global trends report 2007. London: Author.Eurostat. (2010). The European Union labour force survey. unemployment lfs/introduction

[Accessed 13th July, 2011]

Gardner, B., & Abraham, C. (2007).What drives car use? A grounded theory analysis of commuters’reasons for driving. Transportation Research Part F, 10, 187–200.

Germann Molz, J.G. (2009). Representing pace in tourism mobilities: Staycations, slow travel andthe amazing race. Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change, 7(4), 270–286.

Giddens, A. (1990). The consequences of modernity. Cambridge: Polity Press.

G¨ossling, S. (2002). Global environmental consequences of tourism. Global Environmental Change-Human and Policy Dimensions, 12(4), 283–302.

G¨ossling, S., Hall, M., Lane, B., & Weaver, D. (2008). Report: The Helsingborg statement onsustainable tourism. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 16(1), 122–124.

Guiver, J.W. (2007). Modal talk: Discourse analysis of how people talk about bus and car travel.

Transportation Research Part A, 41, 233–248.

Guiver, J., Lumsdon, L.,Weston, R., & Ferguson, M. (2007). Do buses help meet tourism objectives?The contribution and potential of scheduled buses in rural destination areas. Transport Policy,14, 275–282.

Kate Pangboume (2011) “Slow Travel and Tourism: Tourism, Environment and Development series, J. Dickinson, L. Lumsdon. Earthscan, London, Washington, DC. Journal of Transport Geography.

Lumsdon, L. (2000). Transport and tourism: Cycle tourism – a model for sustainable development?Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 8(5), 361–377.

Lumsdon, L., Downward, P., & Cope, A. (2004). Monitoring of cycle tourism on long distance trails:The North Sea cycle route. Journal of Transport Geography, 12, 13–22.

Mintel. (2009). Slow travel special report. London: Author.

Randles, S.,&Mander, S. (2009). “Practice(s) and Ratchet(s): A sociological examination of frequentflying”. In S. G¨ossling & P. Upham (Eds.), Climate change and aviation: Issues, challenges andsolutions (pp. 245–271). London: Earthscan.

Ritchie, B.W. (1998). Bicycle tourism in the South Island of New Zealand: Planning and managementissues. Tourism Management, 19, 567–582.

Robbins, D.K., & Dickinson, J.E. (2007). Can domestic tourism growth and reduced car dependencybe achieved simultaneously in the UK. In P. Peeters (Ed.), Tourism and climate change andmitigation: Methods, greenhouse gas reductions and policies (pp. 169–187). Breda: Stichting

Scott, D., Peeters, P., & G¨ossling, S. (2010). Can tourism deliver its “aspirational” greenhouse

UNWTO-UNEP-WMO. (2008). Climate change and tourism: Responding to global challenges.

Madrid: UNWTO.


Written by