Managing Health Services

Managing Health Services



With the rise in living standards and technological advancement, productivity is which is achieved with health is important hence effective management of health services is crucial. All health services must be managed properly to deliver quality customer services to patients in an efficient manner (Mullins, 2007). For proper management of health services, there is need for harmony between internal and external parties. Many health care organizations find it difficult to deliver services due to poor management (Campbell, 2002). Organizational behavior has three levels: organization system, groups within the organization and the individual. This essay answers questions related to organizations management. (Robins, 2002),

Question #1

Organizational behavior, which is the study of personal and group dynamic level in an organization, is a dynamic discipline. New research ideas have been used to improve the effectiveness of management (Miner, 2002). Moreover, organizational behavior has implications for the ways in which managers manage their employees in the work environment. The role of managers in service delivery determines the level of efficiency obtained from the laid down strategies, (Mullins, 2007). The effectiveness of an organization can be described as the efficiency to which paramedics respond to emergencies, (Russell, 2007). Health care service managers should provide an understandable overview of the demands of the organization in terms of the expected duties and roles for all parties and ensure provision of the expected operational frame work (Caldwell, 2005).

The ability to lay down important and strategic approaches to management is based on the organization policies and culture, (McKelvey, 1999). A good organizational culture helps management come up with a system that promotes an increase in the contribution of workers in the management process (Langdon & Marshall, 1998). Organizational culture aims to reduce the gap between the employees and the management to enable them to work as a team towards a common goal (Langdon & Marshall, 1998). In health services, team work can be enhanced through an effective communication. In addition proper human resource management can contribute to a higher degree of work ethics in provision of health services, (Wood, Zeffane, Fromholt & FitzGerald (2006).  There is need for training human resource managers in order to develop their skills so as to enhance their abilities in promoting team work, (Okes, 2006). In the management of paramedics there is need to ensure efficiency in handling and treatment of patients through proper communication between the emergency staff the management and other hospital staff, (Wang, 2006)


Question #2

Though human personalities are complex, they can be understood accurately by observing people’s behavior. This is important in understanding workmates (Silvester, Fiona, Ivan, Cary, Bernard & John, 2004). Understanding behavior in an organization helps in promoting employees by predicting how one will perform in a new position (Beverly, 2010). Understanding behavior also helps decide on need for staff training. The more you specialize in assessing personality traits of workers, the more proficient you become in understanding people’s behavior and how to handle them.  In addition, understanding people in an organization is important in enhancing communication and achievement of organizational goals, (Beverly, (2010). Understanding people enables efficiency in communication as it will determine how a message is passed and selecting the right person for every message, (Finnigan, 2010). Lack of communication in an organization indicates that there are employee relationship problems that would be improved through team building and other social activities to resolve conflicts within the organization, (Benson, 2010).


Question #3

Perception is the way sensations are interpreted and organized to bring out an experience of the world that is meaningful such as the manner in which a patient may view a hospital environment based on past bad experiences in the same environment, (Bennett, 2007). Perception can also be defined as giving meaning to the present situation based on the interplay of past experiences and including one’s culture, (Macrea, Stangor & Hewston, 1996).

Perception of a nurse can be influenced by factors such as education level and may depend on the level of experience gained in performing duties and roles at work. Their perception would also be based in the knowledge of their field of specialization, (Hong, While & Barriball, 2008).

The way nurses perceive and relate to others affects their work. Some of the nurses reported that they undertook tasks that should not be done by them because of the manner they perceived their roles. (Hong, While & Barriball, 2008).

Perception is the process of recognition and interpretation of stimuli and giving them new perspectives of an individual’s own sensing, tasting, thinking or smelling but stereotype is the combinations of beliefs that form the characteristics of group of members that belong to the same social level which influences how people perceive them or how people give information about others, (Blake & Robert, 2005).

In perception, interpretation is based on the perceived reality (Bennett, 2007); while stereotype categorizes information and surrounding without equal judgment based on social thinking rather than individual judgment (Macrea, Stangor & Hewston, 1996).



Question #4

The first group to be described is the formal group which is an official group that is formed by the authority to pursue a particular purpose. For instance, employees in a hospital form a formal group since each has specific duties to perform in the hospital (Wood et al. 2006).

The Formal group in an organization is divided into:

a.) The permanent formal work group which involves people employed to undertake specific roles in an organization, for example, a senior doctor who heads the other doctors.

b.) On the other hand, temporary work personnel are employed for specific tasks and are terminated after the completion of their goal (Wood et al.  2006).

For example, Saudi Arabia Ministry of Health decreased the number of consultant doctors in less frequently utilized areas such as neurosurgery and engages them on a contract basis when they are needed.

The second group is informal groups which consist of people who appear on nonofficial duties and are not formally recognized as part of the organization, for example, an internship student in a hospital (Wood et al. 2006).

The other forms of groups are:

Friendship groups which consist of people who are naturally attracted to one another and these people can work together within and outside the work place.

The second is the interest group, it consists of people who have same interests, these interests may be work oriented or not work related, for instance, golf players.

Group dynamism in the hospital field is important since it can solve different types of problems related to the workplace. They involve the combination of knowledge and sharing of roles to ensure every activity is undertaken, or problems are solved efficiently. Common understanding is very crucial in a hospital organization to ensure mutual understanding and proper coexistence. This ensures that information can be effectively passed from one group to another, (Brown, 2007)

The “command style” of decision making where the leader makes the decision by himself is effective when the team is unable to come up with a needed decision hence the leader quickly makes the decision on behalf of the group, (Nwogugu, 2005). In a hospital environment the consultative style of decision making is very effective because the group leader seeks advice from the group members before the final decision. In this style the decision meets group needs, (Mullins, 2007).

A consensus style can be used to make group decisions where all members of the group are actively involved in making the decision, (Nwogugu, 2005).

Hospitals deal with emergency situations which call for dynamism in different groups in whatever action or role they are to play in an organization. The challenging part in group dynamism is the coordination of all groups in play. This calls for proper methodology of communication to be achieved. (Arnold & Silvester, 2005).

It is important to understand the concepts of psychology so as to focus in improving and ensuring dynamism in the workplace. In addition, a proper focus on organizational behavior can create a concrete foundation of group dynamism, which will help make right decisions in various situations. (Levi, 2010).

Groups of individuals working together makes well informed decisions as compared to individuals on their own. Interaction between people boosts an individual’s understanding of different situations and acquaints them with the ability to make the right decisions, (Hollway, 1991).




Any organization has set rules and policies that act as a guideline in provision of services to their clients. Organizational behavior is determined by the relationship between managers and employees, culture of the organizations, the perceptions of the workers and the experiences that the employees have in their area of specialization. Workers must understand each other in order to ensure smooth and efficient running of activities in the organization. Communication also plays a key role in the success of any organization. Communication both top down and bottom up ensures that there is understanding between workers in coordinating and executing their roles. Management normally makes decisions in organizations but workers can create groups that can help them reach right group decisions based on discussions and agreements instead of one individual making the decision for a majority. Group decisions therefore help in avoiding mistakes in decision making caused by one individual deciding on issues.




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