Pangarkar, (2006), states that when an organization decides to train its managers, it should start by conducting a gap analysis to enable it determine the shortfall in the abilities of the leaders before executing the training. Evaluation of what skills need to be trained provides a benchmark against which the results will be compared. After gap analysis then development plans for training the managers the executives are laid down.

As Button, (2009) explains, security managers are very important role models, and by failing to extend competency standards to them, this sends out the wrong messages to those security officers at the bottom of organisations. By ignoring standards for managers, it is sending out a message of the lack of importance of training and education to a sector where such views are already prevalent.



According to Button (2009) gaps in regulation of the levels of training of security officers illustrates weaknesses that may have implications for the ultimate success in transforming the security sector. The objectives when introducing regulation is to improve overall standards, quality of service, increase professionalism and exclude those with criminal backgrounds. Some loopholes have been exploited such as criminals who would not be entitled to run a security company becoming security consultants where no licence is required.

According to Martin (2008) an issue which may arise from non regulation is that it may be possible that operational security personnel could be more capable than those who manage them.  There is little evidence of security officers undergoing voluntary training in the Irish private security industry because security management is not required to have security management qualifications.

Wakefield, (2003) points out that if the security management will end up being juxtaposed against the rest of other managerial specialism then the security managers will be prepared towards investing their time in order to secure appropriate development through education and training so as to improve their careers and be able to effectively execute the duties of a security manager.



Martin (2008) explains that frontline staff is very often promoted into managerial positions on the strength of excellent front line performance. But they do not receive the appropriate training to perform their new duties effectively. Current qualifications for managers are not sufficient. Extra training is required for and in addition business skills such as customer care and project management are required for security managers who have originated from military and law enforcement backgrounds.

Sanders, (2008), indicate that where managers engage in voluntary education and training, this may supplement the lack of training and education for management, but where it is lacking bottom up training is required. Failing to enhance the quality of security managers through training as a form of competency improvement will be missing one of the most important elements in succeeding in changing security managers. The current security manager will have often came through the ranks, and being promoted from security guard, to lead guard, supervisor, operations manager and even onto operations director or general manager and al this is possible after bottom up training.



Hertig, (2011), indicates that the security managers are predominantly from the military and the police and therefore it is always assumed that this group of security manager tends to be competent considering their previous security backgrounds as well as their experience in their respective forces. However, Button (2009) says that this is not the case because a reasonable number of them do not possess any credible qualifications.  He adds that there is still many working in the industry as a second career after the military or police to supplement their pensions. According to Heyde, (2003) since some of the officers are in their second career then the average age tends to be high compared to other professions while at the same time there is an entrenched negative orientations regarding to both education and training on security management issues.

Martin (2008) suggests that there is also the need to increase and expand the number of learning routes that are currently limited that leads to the security management jobs, but while there is course available on a voluntary basis, study indicate that they do not  take up this voluntary training. Competency based regulation may be the only answer to this .Despite the experience gained by most of these ex-service  and police security personnel, qualifications are also very crucial in ensuring that they are capable of effectively executing their work thereby becoming capable security guardians.



Martin (2008) research as indicated above indicated a gap in management training for security managers and highlighted general management skills which were lacking such as  conflict resolution; risk assessment; people management skills; problem solving; customer care; computer skills and  law, including employment law. The benefits of training in the above areas by security managers and disadvantages that may arise from non training are discussed in the following sections.

5.4.1 Conflict Resolution

Gebken, (2006) says that conflict in society is inevitable and when there is conflict, it should not be viewed as a dysfunctional element in the management. What should be done is to train security officers to equip them with skills of conflict resolution.

According to Diez, (2004), lack of training of security managers has led to their inability to implement conflict resolution strategies effectively. The skills and knowledge required buy security officers to identify and deter an aggressive crowd or group of suspicious characters is sometimes not sufficient to handle such situations hence the need for them to undergo training.

As Young, (2000), explains security mangers should be trained to enable them be able to identify conflicts through behavioral profiling and be able to handle situations of conflict and also handle after the conflict incidence response. A trained security manager will be able to predict the causes of conflicts and the related reactions so that the manager can use the skills of conflict management for a successful conflict resolution.

5.4.2 Risk Assessment

Hertig, (2011), explains that when a security manger is properly trained, he is able to manage effectively risks associated with large crowds, traffic flow or exit of vehicles in public places. Ability to assess potential threats through training enables security personnel prevent occurrence of accidents.

On the other hand Diez, (2004) explains that lack of training of security officers denies them the skills and knowledge that they need in order to gather and evaluate information for detecting suspects to offenses for quicker response and action to crimes such as theft.


5.4.3 People Management Skills

As Martins (2008) puts it, training of security personnel is an educational and informative development of skill to enable them manage people during incidences especially those that result from crime to ensure that safety and security plans and strategies are employed and protective measures against danger put in place. Lack of training of security staff will lead in inadequate incident management strategies, inability to effectively control large crowds leading to poor recovery and hence business discontinuity.

Chen, (2003), explains that in training security management, the aim is to enable them what needs to be done in managing people or crowds, why they need to manage them and how they should do it so that potential danger to people is contained. Such training should cover crowd management such as in spectator sport security, supervisory skills and management of people during events that pose potential danger.


5.4.4 Problem Solving

Sanders, (2008), indicate that police officer performance in solving problems depends on his ability to evaluate personality characteristics of individuals. Without a good training such security personnel may not be able to effectively recognize a problem. If well trained security officers are able to identify problems, assess their impact and generate and selects the ideas that are needed in solving such a problem.

Lencioni, (2002), asserts that in solving problems, security managers need to come up with plans of implementing solutions as quickly as possible. Good training enables the security officers to take responsibility of strategies devised to come up with a solution of a particular problem. Training of security personnel covers the skills and knowledge required by them in containing incidences related to fire, bomb threats and doing a search. Training thus enables them to use these skills to solve problems that are related to these incidences.

5.4.5 Customer Care

As Chen, (2003), points out, lack of proper training of security guards leads to poor handling of customers, poor management of lost and found properties and improper handling of telephone calls. Since the goal of many companies today is to re-establish connections to new customers and to boost long-term loyalty from the existing customers, training security personnel therefore becomes necessary.

Buttle, (2004), says that when customers complain due to issues related to security, it gives organizations the opportunity to have a plan of training the security personnel to prevent such complaints.  It is through such training that proper handling of customers by the security officers at the front doors will be assured. Training on customer care skills will enable the organization win back dissatisfied customers and hence retain their future value to the organization. Training will also enable the security staff to respond to the client inquiries within their limits and refer them the appropriate room within the building where they could be provided with further assistance as they my require.

5.4.6 Computer skills

According to explanations given by Guay, (2009), customers of organizations need a security partner who is familiar with the use of modern technology in securing systems within the premises of companies. This is necessary because of the high level of security computer systems provide and their widespread use in securing businesses from unauthorized intrusion.

Security managers who are trained on computerized security systems are able to check the security screening equipments, use them to scan objects and people to prevent security threats. Therefore security personnel need to be trained on handling computers and the computer controlled equipment such as cameras to be able to detect security threats that may arise from various sections within the organization.


5.4.7 Law

Sanders, (2008), illustrates that through proper training security managers are able to know their limits in dealing with crime as provided by the constitution. Security officer’s knowledge on the rights and freedom of people is possible through training. This will prevent officers from mishandling suspects and prevent lawsuits. The ability of a security officer to identify his responsibilities under Workplace Safety & Health Act is made possible through wide knowledge of the law. In addition, through proper training, security officers are able to understand matters related to obtaining a search warrant performing a search without violating the constitutional rights of individuals. In addition safeguarding and presenting evidence in courts of law by security personnel requires them to be equipped with relevant skills on such issues.

Tyler, (2002) says that the laid down laws and policies of employment of security officers and issuance of permits to security firms can only be understood well with proper training of security staff. Other laws related to trade unions and security bodies should be understood via training of these officers to avoid breaking such laws.


5.4.8 Project Management

Eid, (2004) describes how managerial leadership skills are important to a Norwegian navy officer in managing various projects. Before training these officers showed lower leadership ratings when given projects to supervise.

According to Lencioni, (2002), managerial credibility in handling projects is a product of good training to enable a manager understands the basic concepts of a project, goals and objectives of the project and measures that needs to be put in place to ensure successful implementation of the project.


5.4.9 Business Skills

Daks, (2008) explains the challenges that security related companies face in finding qualified employees who understand the core business of the organization, customer handling and executing tasks. Training a security officer equips him with the skills and knowledge to understand organisational goals, operations of various departments, flow of materials and information within the organization and hence enable him to effectively observe hazards and apply risk control procedures in providing workplace safety.



In accordance to Tyler, (2002), there are two major types of motivation in management of people; the first one is the desire of individuals to get rewards and avoid punishment. Managers can tap into such motivations for successful understanding the people they mange. Secondly; people are motivated by their internal attitudes and values. A trained manager is able to understand different people by determining the attitudes that influence their behavior. The advantage of understanding people’s attitudes by a manager is the ability to decide on the best approach of handling different people.

In management, Krishnan (2004) says that leadership is a relationship between the manager and his followers in using the motivation of both parties to handle different situations. Leadership skills in a manger enable him to assess the employees and determine their needs so that all decisions made are in line with the requirements of the employees with an aim of good service to customers.

Goodboe, (2002), explains that leadership is a managerial approach of using diagnostic tests to notice and respond to challenges such as team building, solving conflicts and managing people under stress. A security officer to stay or leave a company will depend on the ability to work with other leaders to solve conflicts by being able to identify what motivates people to cause conflict.

Daks, (2008) describes the power of team work saying that ability of a manager to successfully implement projects will be determined by the ability to make team that can work together to attain a common objective. Security managers need to understand what motivates other employees for them to be able to build teams that can handle various programs or projects. If managers lack training in areas of teambuilding and leadership then problems are likely to arise in identifying problems and solving various conflicts.



According to Alpert (2004), lack of proper training of security managers is the cause of inaccurate assessment of potential risk to the employees of organizations. Without training of managers Hertig, (2011) says that they will not be able to handle emergence situations effectively by making the right decisions. In situations such as accidents, only trained managers will be able to direct personnel effectively to provide proper care to the affected people.

Martin (2008) general management skills lack when there is no training of these officers. Untrained manager therefore may fail to solve problems that arise within organizations. Lack of training will also prevent the managers from using modern technology in communication with the staff and in securing security systems within the organization.

Haynes (2001), says that wrong tactics may be used by managers in resolving conflicts if they are not trained. Proper tactics should be applied by mangers to resolve situations peacefully without hostility unless the hostile person poses a higher level of threat. There is no single method of handling resistance and conflicts by subjects. Therefore training enables managers to understand situation that arise in organizations and be able to resolve conflicts with consideration of policies and procedures and without breaking the law.






Vendrell, (2007) describes management as demanding profession that requires mangers to be trained well in managing human resource. A wide array of specialized knowledge on human resources, their attitudes and values is necessary in handling them in situations where problem arise. Managers of security firms for example usually ensure that they recruit the right officers at the right price I order to achieve competitive success. This is necessary as organizations will need security officers who are able to protect the human resource effectively without complaints.

Diez (2004) asserts that communicative interaction is the best strategy in human resource management as this can enable managers to resolve both objectively latent conflicts and manifest conflicts among employees. In addition strategic human resource management involves long term plans to train staff and mangers to enable them to adopt to the changes in technology and expanding organization departments.

To prevent severe workforce shortages Guay, (2009), suggests that plans of employing more staff should be based on understanding the human resource challenges in managing increasing responsibilities and developing tactics for addressing those needs by recruiting more staff. The consequences of inaction in a growing organization will cause a serious problem of the organization not being able to meet the demands of all its clients.

The Business Journal, (2002), reported that the need to create more opportunities for training mangers because untrained management lacks skills of decision making and handling employee inquiries in a friendly way. Training managers stemmed from a plan of providing better services to the clients through proper management of the employee. Lack of training of manager may lead to employees doing a poor job as a result of lack of proper supervision. To make the training possible, mangers can give suggestions of areas they need to be trained on. The management and the frontline staff needs to be trained on their roles so that the organization goals are achieved with minimal supervision of employees by the management.

Button, (2009) adds training managers will enable them have a proper understanding of the factors that can motivate the staff to perform better at their work. This training in addition to management experience will enable managers is able to understand their staff well and thus provides them with a motivating work environment. Strategic human resource management entails god communication between the management and the employees. Training managers should be designed to equip them with communication and human relation skills.




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