IMPACTS OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
First, technology transfer in any state derives from consideration of fundamental factors such as social, political, economic, and cultural as well as religion. Initially, Saudi Arabia was confined in religion conservativeness as an Islamic central point, against modern advancements in respect to technology transfer. Therefore, this factor facilitated the late incorporation of technology in the country. More so, (Batarseh 1994, 23) contends that, there were cases of resistance propelled by sovereignty, and geographical aspects; percent of desert. Therefore, impacts of technology are realized from success in the process of transfer, mutual relationship between stakeholders and diffusion.
Al-Mabrouk and Soar (2008, p. 2) identify that stakeholders refer to both the internal; receiving and distributing, as well as the external; the transferring party. In addition (Al-Mabrouk & Soar 2008, 3) elaborate that, internal stakeholders are the government, organizations, developers and users. The stakeholders in such conservative countries should be enlightened on the developments incurred with integration of technology. Straub, Loch and Hill (2001, p.6) states that, the level of interest varies due to notion of stripping-off customary religious values. This is further based on the diffusion of technological advancements with dominance of information from foreign cultures (Al-Mabrouk & Soar 2008, p. 4), hence cease from impairing the local technological potential (Olayan 1999, p.43). Straub, Loch and Hill (2001, p.10) highlight that, mutual understanding between involved stakeholders is vital, for mass diffusion of technology. It also, deals with acknowledging the importance of technology in development, with clarification on areas such as modernization, improved services, improved knowledge and safe operations (Olayan 1999, p.40). Also, consider the economic prosperity associated with technology adoption leading to competitiveness on a global perspective. Olayan (1999, p. 43) clarifies that long-term relationships between transferor and the receiver, derivers successful integration of technology.
Olayan (1999, p. 47) states that in Saudi Arabia, transfer of technology has to consider its strict values. This means that, once installation of technologies occur, the internal stakeholders have to ensure principles enforced in Islam are considered. More so, (Shoult 2006, p.429) adds that, the cultural aspects in Saudi Arabia are a must consideration too. Therefore, the relationship between the transferring party and the party receiving the technology determines the mechanism success (Murphy 2006, p. 1067). The transfer needs to be understood by the state so as to enhance the envisioned goal of implementing technology against certain values. With regards to this, (Olayan 1999, p. 46) identify that most states adopts technological developments in relation to the economic prosperity aligned with it. Therefore, a mutually accepted technology such as commercial model has consideration of envisioned goals (Ramanathan n.d, p.6).
Further, the commercial mechanism (Ramanathan n.d, p. 6) has to consider the economic gains that will be realized against all values that may hinder such developments. More so, (Olayan 1999, p. 47) justifies that, even with focus on economic significance, legal concerns especially in new environment are essential. This implies that legal aspects such as licenses and guarantees between involved stakeholders must be observed. Once these factors are considered, the integration phase actualizes with technical knowhow of the transferring party, passed on to the receiver. This upholds the simulation of technology capabilities in terms of safety and usage benefits (Batarseh 1994, p. 18). In conclusion, transfer of technology derives from understanding the impacts as well as the values to be observed.
Al-Mabrouk, Khalid and Soar, Jeffrey 2008, ‘Issues for successful IT transfer in the Arab world: a multiple stakeholder perspective’, p.1-11.
Batarseh, IE 1994, ‘The Japanese experience in technology transfer and how it may apply to Saudi Arabia’, Arab Studies Quarterly, 16, 1, p. 25, Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 8 June 2011.
Murphy, EC 2006, ‘Agency and Space: the political impact of information technologies in the Gulf Arab states’, Third World Quarterly, 27, 6, pp. 1059-1083, Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 8 June 2011.
Olayan, HB 1999, ‘Technology Transfer in Developing Nations’, Research Technology Management, 42, 3, p. 43, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 8 June 2011.
Ramanathan, K n.d, ‘An Overview of Technology transfer and Technology Transfer Models’, p.1-28
Shoult, A 2006, ‘Chapter 7.9: Telecommunications and Information Technology’, Doing Business with Saudi Arabia pp. 427-433 Blue Ibex Ltd. Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 8 June 2011.
Straub, D, Loch, K, & Hill, C 2001, ‘Transfer of Information Technology to the Arab World: A Test of Cultural Influence Modeling’, Journal of Global Information Management, 9, 4, p. 6-29, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 8 June 2011.