Hotel Hierarchical Model


Hotel Hierarchical Quality Service Model



Most of the services industries have nowadays developed hierarchical models that have been crucially significant in helping them to understand as well as help them in measuring the relationships that exist between the primary dimensions, sub dimensions service quality and the high order constructs which includes the image, value, perceived switching costs, satisfaction, customer retention as well as the behavioral intentions. Therefore, the hierarchical model of an hotel is a crucial way of clearly indicating how the entire of the departments within a hotel are interrelated from the high order constructs through the primary dimensions and finally to subdivisions. The entire of these levels in hierarchical model is an indication of power that each of them possesses as well they extent of influence within the organization (Brady & Cronin, 2001).

The service of my choice is a hotel which is usually an establishment that is responsible of providing paid short-term basis accommodation as well as foods and beverages. Therefore, upon evaluation of a hotel it is possible to determine that it is actually not a fully service industry since it also consists of offering several products. However, the services constitute the largest portion of their business (Garrett, 2002). In addition, most hotels are nowadays not involved in offering rooms with only the basic amenities but others have gone a long way in ensuring that the fit their rooms with the modern facilities such as climate control or air conditioning and en-suite bathrooms. Other rooms may also consist of additional facilities, but the facilities are fitted into a single room and the modernity of such facilities determines the cost at which they are usually offered at.  Furthermore, there also some hotels that after the issuance of the rooms offers meals and beverages as an inclusive part of an agreement on the room and boarding (Negi, 2008).

Moreover, the management of a hotel involves a certain hierarchical model which incorporates all the employees and stakeholders ranging from the top most management to the lowest (O’Fallon & Rutherford, 2010). For instance, in the case of larger hotels their operation may actually involve an extensive management structure that may consist of the hotel’s board of directors who are the overall decision makers, general manager serving as the head executive, head of departments responsible of overseeing various departments within the hotel, administrative staff, middle managers, supervisors and the employees at the bottom. However, the hierarchical model ensures that all these groups amicably works together smoothly with an aim of achieving the set goals through improving the service quality delivery (Negi, 2008).

Primary dimensions and their subdimensions

Over the recent past  considerable attention have been devoted in studying the perception of service quality by consumers. For instance, in the hotel which mostly offers services their intangible nature makes them more difficult to evaluate. Brady and Cronin (2001) however developed a hierarchical service quality model (HSQM) consisting of three main primary dimensions  such as the  physical environment quality, interaction quality, and outcome quality. However, each of these identified primary dimensions are further subdivided into various sub-dimensions. Therefore, due to involvement of all the major conceptualizations that had been proposed previously it then becomes the most convenient approach of assessing service quality nowadays (Garrett, 2002).

However, in the hierarchical service quality model service quality is actually perceived as a multilevel construct that mainly consist of three major primary dimensions  such as the  physical environment quality, interaction quality, and outcome quality. Moreover, these  three primary  dimensions are also composed of a variety of other lower level subdimensions that are nine in total. For instance the interaction quality dimension comprises of three main subdimensions such  as behavior,  attitude, as well as  the expertise of the service provider. The outcome quality dimension also consists of three main subdimensions such as the waiting time, valence and tangibles (Brady & Cronin, 2001). Finally, the physical environment quality dimension which is the third primary dimension also comprises of three subdimensions such as ambient conditions, social factors and design. These components of the  hierarchical service quality model are clearly presented in the Figure 1 shown below:






























Figure 1: Hotel Hierarchical Quality Service Model Chart





















Three primary dimensions and nine subdimensions discussion

The model illustrated above indicates that in every of our identified three primary dimensions of service quality such as the physical environment, interaction, and outcome all of which also consists of three subdimensions which makes the overall number of  subdimensions to be nine. Furthermore, customers usually tend to aggregate their subdimensions evaluations in order to form their perceptions about the performance of an organization on each of the identified three primary dimensions (O’Fallon & Rutherford, 2010). However, these perceptions have high chances of resulting to the overall perception of service quality at a particular hotel. Thus, this indicates that most customers often tend to form their perceptions on service quality based on their hotel performance evaluation at multiple levels and eventually combining all their evaluations in order to allow them arrive at an overall perception towards a particular hotel’s service quality (Garrett, 2002).

For instance, considering the interaction quality it is apparent to note that it one of the most crucial primary dimension within any hotel mainly because it enables the interaction of various departments within the hotel thereby ensuring that the services runs smoothly. Moreover, it clearly portrays the interrelations between various production and operational factors within the hotel settings (Brady & Cronin, 2001). In addition, when the subdimensions of this crucial primary dimension are considered such as attitude, behavior as well as the expertise of the service provider it indicates that an effective combination of them is likely to result into an amicable service delivery system which has a likelihood of improving the perception of a hotel among its royal and potential customers. These subdimensions indicates a specific they can  be responsible of resulting to delivery of high quality service. For instance, attitude and behavior indicates the culture of the hotel employees and their way of doing things. Therefore, this is a very crucial factor in determining the nature of services delivered, also the expertise will be very crucial in ensuring that the hotel offers high quality services that continues to promote customer perceptions towards the services offered (O’Fallon & Rutherford, 2010).

However, the physical environment quality is of crucial significance since it ensures that there is an appropriate environment through which the services could be effectively offered. Hence, the subdimensions of this primary dimension such as the ambient conditions, social factors and design are vital in making sure the required quality of services is achieved. Thus it is likely to ensure that the conditions required for attaining high quality services are put in place. Therefore, this is mainly dependent on setting the infrastructure which is crucial to enable there is delivery of high services (Brady & Cronin, 2001). In addition, the outcome quality which is the other primary dimension constitutes the of outcome part of the service delivery. Hence, it considers subdimensions such as the waiting time, valence and tangibles all of which collaboratively indicates the overall quality of the services offered in a hotel. Hence, considering these three subdimensions it becomes vital in ensuring they maintained at high standards meaning that this will be directly reflected on the services delivery.

High order constructs

The high order constructs involves the top most  constructs in the hierarchical service quality model. It usually involves the service quality construct which the overall in the service delivery. This construct then leads to the primary constructs meaning that it is at the helm of the hierarchy of the primary dimensions and their subdimensions (Brady & Cronin, 2001). Moreover, quality of service constitutes the other major construct irrespective of which is service is being offered. However, this has two broad aspects such as the functional quality which involves the service process quality and technical quality involving the service outcome quality. Therefore, technical quality mainly refers to as the core services offered in order to meet the expectations of customers as well as the functional quality referring to the interaction process impact or the perception of the delivery and production process. These constructs tend to frequently interact meaning that they tend to be interdependent on each other (O’Fallon & Rutherford, 2010).

Strategic value to the management of the hierarchical model

This model usually have a significance importance in helping the managers to understand the way in which their customers tend to assess the experiences of the quality of service. Essentially, this model is very helpful in addressing basic issues such as the definition of the perceptions of the service quality, the formation of such service quality perceptions as well as the importance of the place in which the service is experienced. Therefore, based on the above identified factors managerial attention is thus required in order to improve perceptions of service quality by the consumers (Garrett, 2002).

Moreover, from a strategic management standpoint this model can be used in categorizing customers throughout the nine subdivisions. This is very crucial in ensuring that there is the identification of the service deficiencies within the hotel while at the same time identifying the core competencies of the hotel’s service delivery. This serves a crucial role in enabling the isolation and resolution of the problems that have been noted by its royal customers. In addition, it also provides an opportunity for improving on the core competencies. Moreover, this model also makes it possible to track the performance of the subdivisions in order to determine the ones that are not effectively working while at the same time helping to improve the well performing ones and rectifying the poorly performing (Brady & Cronin, 2001). In addition, this model can also be used to compare the performance of various subdimensions and primary dimensions among the organizations that utilize it hence making it possible to evaluate the performance of a single organization against the performance of others.


Service industry is undoubtedly one of the most dynamic sectors which requires  a comprehensive approach in order to ensure that the needs and preferences are effectively met especially in the hotel service industry which has been discussed in the hierarchy model. However, the hierarchical service quality model is actually a multilevel construct mostly  involving three main parts of the hierarchy such as  the high order  constructs, primary dimensions and the subdimensions. For instance, the identified high order constructs were service  quality construct and the quality of service which involved both the technical and service  quality. Moreover, the primary dimensions involved  the interaction quality, outcome quality  and physical environment quality all of which consists of three subdimensions each.

The high order constructs and dimensions of the hierarchical service quality model interact with each other in the attempts of providing significant meaning to the customers’ perceptions on the services offered in a  hotel. Moreover, this is very crucial in enabling the hotel managements to realize the points of their deficiencies and weaknesses in terms of the services offered. Hence, it facilitates an amicable process of ensuring that the deficiencies are avoided while at the same time putting more efforts on improving the strengths identified.


Brady, M.K. & Cronin, J.J. Jr (2001). Some new thoughts on conceptualizing perceived service quality: a hierarchical approach. Journal of Marketing, 65(3), 34-49.

Garrett,  W. E. (2002). Hotel management and the interrelations of hotel departments. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press.

Negi, J. (2008). Hotel for tourism, development, economic planning and financial management. New Delhi: Atma Ram and Sons.

O’Fallon, M. J. & Rutherford, D. G. (2010). Hotel management and operations (5th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.


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