Philosophy

So we studied these books in class: Antigone, Book of Job, Life of Galileo. For this midterm paper we have to answer ONLY TWO OF the following questions in an essay format.

Please choose the TWO that you like best.
1. Explain as THROUGHLY as possible, what the basic conflict in Antigone and how it came about. Then explain as thoroughly as possible, what each of the two individuals involved in this basic conflict represents. Finally, explain as throughly as possible what qualifies Antigone as a heroic figure.
2. Explain as throughly as possible what the debate is, in the Book of Job, between Job and his three friends, and how it came about. Then explain, as throughly as possible, the significance of God’s speech for the position taken by Job in his debate and for the position taken by Job’s three friends.

3. Explain, as thoroughly as possible, the significance of Gailileo’s discoveries, first, of the moons of Jupiter, and then of mountains and valleys on the earth’s moon. Next, explain as throughly as possible, how Brecht’s play about Gailileo illustrates how science does not go on in a vacuum but rather, as a human activity, science can and does intersect with other dimensions of human life, specifically, economic factors, political factors, and social factors. Finally, explain, as thoroughly as possible, how Brecht’s play illustrates the point that scientific conclusions can influence how we understand who we are as human beings in reference to our place in the world in which we find ourselves.

Here are some additional info from the professor:

1) I was asked a couple of questions about the format for the
essays. It is not necessary to follow a particular style manual. Simply
write the two essays in essay form. These are not "short answer"
questions. A word of advice: when you think of something relevant,
be sure to get it on the paper. When I read your essays, I only read
what’s in the paper. In other words, I don’t read your mind. So don’t
simply give me lists of terms or hints.
There is no set length for the essays. Just answer the questions
AS THOROUGHLY AS POSSIBLE, as is noted in each question.

2) I was asked about providing references for quotations. Since
you’re only allowed to use the texts that we have studied (and not
allowed to use secondary sources, either printed or on-line) you
may simply include the page number for the quotation. If you read
an on-line addition of a text, you may provide some information
to identify it, such as the internet site or the editor’s name or the
translator’s name, and do not necessarily need to supply page
numbers.

*PLEASE only do TWO questions.

*I will upload my notes from class so you can look at it.

*Please let me know if you need more pages.

*Kindly stick to the deadline.
Summary link:http://www.sparknotes.com/drama/antigone/summary.html

Polis/ city-state
Democracy/ rule of the people
Thebes = 1 in Egypt and 1 in Greece more 1000 polis
In 5th center before jesus were born. The development of society in Greece high pointed (one of activities that happened was art including theater)

– Theater & theory & drama & tragedy comes from Greek
theater/theatron
theory/theorin
Drama/Drama
Tragedy/from 2 greek words: goat (something unexpected), ode (kind of poem {man}) Goeatode

Before jesus were born there were play rides: Satyr play* The clouds*
1)Aeschylus. 2)Sophocles. 3)Euripedes Aristphanes* The frogs*

The characters:
1. Antigone is the girl who will rise up alone and die young.
2. Haemon, Antigone’s dashing fiancé.
3. Ismene, her beautiful sister.
4. Oedipus, Antigone and Ismene’s father
5. The brothers’ names: Polyneices (Polynices) & Aetocles (Eteocles)
6. Creon is their uncle king of Thebes. Related to their mother

Not sure of the grey highlight (ignore it ) Check the summary link!
? Asks for a favor (borrowing an army). The king agreed. ? Want to take back the thebes. The 2 brothers + sornes dead. Creon took the throne.
There was conversation btwn Antigone and her sister Ismene. Cant challenge the power of the king (madness).

The greek word for Soul = Psyche

Crayons wife and Hemans mother, Uridicy, when she hears the news she got overwhelmed and couldn’t take it. As a consequence, she kills her self.

Antigone, Heman and Uridicy died. The final world is given to the chorus: there is no happiness where there is no wisdom. But in submission to the Gods, big word are….” Creon is the only one who is left to live on. Presumably he has learned from these event.

• Main characters:
• Creon and Antigone.

o What each of the characters represent:
• What is it that drives Antigone’s actions? Her brother, she is going to burry him. So basically, blood or family is what mainly drives her.
• How about Creon? The integrity with the political state.

o Antigone: The character of actions is: Impulsive
o Creon: Calculated
o
o Antigone is inclined to offer support from Gods and Goddesses who belong to an older generation
o
o Antigone represents a mature person, while Creon represents a human made institution
o
o Antigone: Looks to gods and goddesses associated with nature to support faith
o
o Creon: Looks to gods and goddesses of the city (polis) state to support him

• My Note:

• Theater related to a Greek word which means ( Theorien, Theatrion, and theory), which means to see things more clearly.
• Drama and tragedy come from Greek, too (= Goat/ode) Tragedy means something unexpected.
• Satyr is a creature the is half man (from the Top), and half goat (Down).
• Polic means City State
• Democracy means Rules of the people.
• Before Jesus was born there were three major play writers:

• Antigone takes place in Thebes in Greece not in Egypt
• Antigone is the most common Greek drama
• Antigone is a translated play, and begins by Antigone, and her sister were talking about their dead brothers; (Polyneices) and Aetocles (Eteocles) who fought each other and died ..
• Polyneices ends up in another City-state, and after a while he married the daughter of another state king. Polyneices got in charge of that army.
• When their father died their uncle (Creon) took the throne.
• Creon has issued a law that whoever berried Polynices is going to be executed. Antigone wanted to berry him, but her sister (Ismene) told her not to. (All what Antigone wanted that her brother is treated probably). – At that time a person who don’t berried his soul (Psyche- sokeeh) won’t pass to the next stage. They go to a place called Heidi which is ruled by a god named Heidi.
• She got caught, and brought to Creon, and he was shock that one of his family got betrayed him.

• PHIL – 01/02
• Anarchy means the stage when there is no order (Greek word=Arche)
• Page 13: Didn’t catch what he said 😀
• Page 17-18-19 Creon asks Antigone if she knew about his law, she said Yes, and when he asks her if she is ready to admit that she has done something wrong she said No .
• P 21: Ismene (her sister) said that If she took half of the responsibility, he won’t kill Antigone. However, Antigone told her that she wouldn’t help her on the first place, so she doesn’t have to take the credit now. (by doing and saying that to each other, they actually olny wanted to help and protect each other).
• There were two people who tried to talk Creon out of executing Antigone.
• First Heamon (His son and Antigone Fiancé):
• Page 26 He started talking gently to his father, and he asked him nicely to back down, and he told him that if he went along with his plan, people will turn against him. However, as soon as his son left the room, Creon decided to go along with his plan.
• Page 37 The second person was (Teiresios, who has the ability to see and predict the future= Seer); he worn him that once Creon continue with his plan, all the catastrophes will come to him.
• They put her in a large cage with a little food and water, so she will die from starvation.. He didn’t want to kill her with his own hands.
• Also, he put her that way because she told him that the gods will come and take her or rescue her, so he wanted to give the gods a time to come, and he will do whatever he wants regardless the gods.

• Antigone:
• 1. Family (blood). impulsive, initiative
• 2. Closer to nature
• 3. Look for support from gods and goddess and closely associated with nature such as (Earth, Hods)
• Creon:
• 1. Looking for support form gods and goddess who are official gods and goddess of the state (Patron)
• 2. Integrity of the political state
• 3. Calculating
• 4. Human made institution
• 5. masculine

• We have to understand what’s FATE:
• Sometimes they think of it as a person life is upon events
• Greek thought as configuration of forces that arracted person’s life. Such that at one point or another, they can snapshot or trap the person. In Antigone case, what distinguish her is she’s the ultimate figure. She captured site of fate early on first of all she knows there’s no way at all that she’s not going to bury her bro. but she also knows that could be defiantly the end of her life. She takes this fate upon her self and she lives it out. And that characteristic of heroic figure in Greek.

• Heroic figure in Greek contest display tragic flow.
• Tragic flow in Greek display that the heroic figure was in fact HUMAN.

• *I have no idea who are those or why the prof mentioned them L (Hemartia) (Heraklis: was the earlist figure in Greek) (Achilles: “Brad pitt movire Greece vs. troy)

• Antigone is the one who’s driving the actions in the play, and Creon was responding.

• Comes from the Hebrew, the old testimony. It is written in Biblical Hebrew is the language. (Aramaic) (Lingua Franca “Public or Open Language”)

• Three main divisions of the Hebrew scripters, 5 books of Moses: they were translated to Pentateuch(Penta means five)
a. Torah AKA teaching
b. Prophets \ I.e. Isaiah, Jeremiah, Deborah, Haggai
c. The writings: Book of Job falls under this division, also Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes (Koheleth in Hebrew

• Introduction: Theme: The suffering of innocent people
• Job was considered to be a rich man who has a lot of animals, a family that he loves, health…
• Everyone who he loves dies, his family and his house disappears, he only has his wife left
• After all that, he is still loyal to God, still richest. Satan gives Job disease and illness and he remains loyal

• Eliphas the eldest
• Bildad
• Ziphar

The original argument between job and Satan was that god insisted that Job is richest just for the sake to be richest

• Even though god is not giving Job a full answer, it would compromise the way in which job is richest only to be richest.
Beginning of philosophy in western world, Greece

Philosophy begins in Greece in the 7th century, and then in the 5th century before Jesus was born, this happens with the contribution of these philosophers:
Socrates > his student is Plato > his student is Aristotle > his student is Alexander

Antigone:
o Forces, larger than life, active in life,
o It included Gods and Goddesses
o Fate
o bigger picture, larger context
o Heroic nobility

Job:
o The individuals relation to God, so for the book of Job there is also a larger context than life, Its possible for Job to live a life of righteousness for the sake of righteousness
o
For the philosophers, there is also a greater context or a greater picture, there is an overall order of the cosmos (universe, this order is:
• For the philosophers, human beings have an ability that makes us able to understand the overall order, that ability also makes it possible for us to use that understanding to guide our lives. So that we can fulfill ourselves as human beings. This ability is Reason

In each case how its best to live our lives is understood somewhat different, but nevertheless, they have these 3 factors in common: larger context, bigger picture, for each of them, its because there is

What is going to be challenged is this way of thinking that life we live is with larger context along with that, the idea that because of the larger context we can ask what the best way is to lead a humans life.

• Alexander became a leader in Greece, (unify power) he had the forces of military in the east. Earlier, a power from the east had moved to the west had entered Greece, and that power was the Persian Empire.

• He stated the battle (one was Thermopylae and the other is Salamis).

• We not only inherited the consequences, we also inherited problems:

• What happens is basically the interaction between the Greek world on hand and the biblical religious tradition on the other hand intensifies. The s in religion(s) is because Christianity appears soon, and Christianity will also become involved in this intensive interaction in the Greek world along with Judaism.

• Reason by itself cant get us there, but revelation is also needed. They don’t necessarily agree, but they also don’t disagree.

• This is what people mean by collusion at this point.
• Rome eclipses Greece as the major power in the ancient and the Mediterraneanworld.
• the romans made their own important contribution, such as in the field of law.
• When Rome fell, Europe spread and entered a new age that lasted for thousand years: Called Middle Ages\Medieval (between modern and ancient ages)

• Philosophers of middle ages:
Halevy, Aquinas, Avicenna
Maimonides Augustine Averroes Saladin
Reason/ Greek philosophers

• Some characters:
• Andrea
• Ludovico
• Sagredo

• Couple of discoveries the center the earth is going around the sun. no special orbit. It happen to be number 3.

• The reflection of the light is a result of the initial discovery. When Galileo see from telescope see shadows on the surface of the moon.
• • What he concludes from that is that there are mountains and valleys on the moon.
• • What’s so significant about that? this proves something that ppl had thinking many centuries. Namely that the astronomical bodies have to be perfect. What Gallileo discover there are something imperfection on the moon. Why ppl thought that? They thought the astronomy bodies are close to the god so they have to be perfect. (THE MOON IS REFLECTING LIGHT) (IT’S NOT THE SOURCE OF THE LIGHT THAT WE SEE FROM IT, IT JUST REFLECT THE LIGHT FORM THE SUN).
• • The other discovery: the moons of Jupiter. HE saw little spots and concludes that there are satellites of moons that are around Jupiter.
• Why this is significant?
• 1- The fact that there are astronomical bodies going around other planets make it easier for ppl to understand not everything goes around the earth. The moons of Jupiter made it easier for ppl to accept that not everything necessarily goes around the earth. Eventually the earth itself goes around the sun.
• 2- Crystalline spheres: the astr bodies stay up. Later on, what will acct for that? GRAVITY!! Newton’s law explain why the astr bodies stay up. Why crystal b/c we can’t see them. Crystal is transparent.

• • Sun spots of the sun demonstrates that the Sun is not a perfect body.

• • Page 22 in the middle Giordano Bruno who said bodies go around the earth.
• • The first major is that we though the earth is the center and everything goes around it.
• • The second major comes in the 19th century with another scientific revolution from biologist (Char Darwin) (Darwinian Revolution).
• The crucial idea here is evolution .. human species came from other old species and we might not be permanent.
• – Psychoanalysis tell us our unconscious life runs by unconscious factors. BOOM!
• – How many generations in a century? Nowadays we say about 4.

• In scene 4, Galileo will ask for a fund from the wealthiest family in Italy called Medici. Page 33.

• Scene 5: this informs us during this period of time in which this take place Italy in particular is suffering from __ . this was the second of the play. Terrible. But in terms of numbers is not as bad as the first one. In 14th century, a play took the lives of numerous number of ppl in Europe and Asia, possibly the 3rd of the population. This is one of the reasons that church is sensitive to significant to revolutions b/c of devastation of the play shape the faith of many ppl. There’s one other event that make the church do that is __. There will be wars actually fought btwn the prodect nations. NOT SURE :-/
• • Scene 5 cont’d: Ppl are preparing to leave Florence city. Whether Galileo is going to leave the city too or not? Galileo actually won’t go b/c he can’t find certain document concerning his work and records on his telescope research. This demonstrate his dedication to his work and conviction of how significant it was.

• Scene 7: Galileo was in the room with a officer/member of the church, monk, and they making fun of what Galileo has to say. They mocking Galileo. Why? Page 49. Wondering star.
• Before the scene ends what happened? Page 51 Clavious (official astronomer of the church). News come obvious himself GALILEO IS RIGHT!

• 400 years.

• What’s the small request? Which is actually not a request. What can he not do? They know he’s right but he should not make his conclusion public. The church know he’s right but they’re telling him not to make his conclusion public. Why this is so significant? It tells us the conflict is not about the truth. The conflict is about power. The church is senseitive at this point b/c of the challenge of
• If it got out for thousand of yrs. Ppl would say if this is was wrong what else could be wrong too that they tell us. Church will lose faith!
• Chapter 7:
• Scene 3: where we come across the evidence that Galileo bring up using telescope. Elecentric model of solar system.

• Not everything necessarily goes around earth. There are others that go around Jupiter. Along with that the possibility of Earth going around other things. Jupiter break crystal … astronomical bodies don’t fall. They concluded that the sphere that hold them has to be crystal b/c we don’t see them.
• o What your seeing through telescope say there’s no difference between earth and heaven
• o page 26:

• o conversation between Galileo’s daughter and a man: an “inquisitor”of the group of the inquisition who have the power toarrest people, to imprison or even executepeople, which he did. (execution)

• o what did he ask Virginia? He wanted to test her to get info about what Galileo says in the court house

• Scene 8: young scientist Monk visited Galileo page 62
• Scene 9: “8 long years…” the scene takes place at Galileo’s house in Florence, and there are 3 of his assistance including the little monk, and Andrea
• Modern science depend on observation. Use of telescope and experimentation. Which we see in the experiment here.
• Scene 9:
• Two messages were delivered to Galileo by the little man:
o First: the current pope is on the death bed, and the new pope is expected to be a scientist; who’s name is Barbirini. If the pope himself is a scientist, things are going to loosen up a bit.
o Second: Be good Galileo or else I wont be marrying you. The family of the bride is wealthy and they own a lot of land they cant let their social position be ruined
o Page 82:
Galileo is keeping a copy of a book that he is writing: what he asks Andréa to do is to smuggle the book out of Italy and get it to some place that is not as strictly controlled as Italy. When he gets to the boarder there is a group of boys who are afraid of an old woman carrying a stick making butter and they think she is a witch. It shows us that sometimes old ideas hang around and die hard.

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