Work setting in the industrial revolution era

It has been   observed that traditional practice of women discrimination at work has been persistent. These revolve around behavior and practices imposed to women which can be termed as employment discrimination. It can vary from sexual harassment or hostility in the working environment. Harassers of women have continued with this practice simply because it has been considered common and the harassment victims have no remedies at all.  Men have conduct that seems unobjectionable and these when extended to the work environment are likely to offend women (Greenwald, 2010).

There has had a disagreement whether the British Industrial Revolution has benefited women and evidence has shown that it increased women’s participation in labor situated away from homes. The women’s labor force has rose even though there are disadvantages women face over this time. This era marked an important change period when women started working.

Domestic chores used to occupy women’s time during the Industrial revolution period and most of it went unpaid. Women could get employment such as servants, service providers or as charring women among the well-up families. Women employment later found position with evolution of cottage industry such as textile manufacturing, pillow lace industry and straw plaiting industry which enabled work force to shift outside homes to the start up of factories.

According to Marisa (2010]), women have been overrepresented in precarious work situation in both cases of national range and international. These equate to the non-standard employment opportunities that are characterized by low job ranks and meager wages. In such employment, women tend to have less union protection compared to their male counterparts. These gender differences in terms of wages, job security, working hours and union protection are suggestive aspects that women experience a high degree of precarious employment in different working environment.

Contributing factors to women being subjected to precarious employment than men are such as possessing of less human capital, their priorities for family obligations, and other aspects related to work criteria.  Women are considered to face greater disadvantages in the labor market as their human capital and personal investments function differently compared to those of men. From the perspective  of  gender stratification, women  being over presented in low paying, part time work situations is an example of a discriminatory practice in a working environment.

It is clear that women continue being segregated in the precarious work settings. They are considered to report less work experience, they devote more time to domestic responsibilities and fewer work hours in working organizations.

There were distinctions of the work specifications as men constituted the majority employees and therefore held high rank positions than women. In some occupations without strong professionalism, women were meant to remain important assets of the work force (Burnette 1997).

Work setting in hierarchal organization

As reported by Stewman and Konda (1983), the mobility increament of women within an organization has been dependent on factors such as, the available number of vacancies one is eligible to, the number of competitors, and the organizational decision makers’ preferences. The preference of the decision makers is based in respect to gender. If for instance the women’s mobility chances decline moving up the organizational hierarchy, the men achieve the decision maker preferences. This proposes that decision maker’s preference for men over women has been in increase at a higher hierarchal level.

There are attempts that develop arguments for the experienced declining number of women in organizations. This is determined by mechanisms that trigger decision makers to prefer men to women in the selection criteria at all levels based on education achievements, past experiences of similar jobs and intellectual levels. Certain characteristics of high ranked jobs can also accentuate such mechanisms in that there are specific job ranks that are only meant for men and this disadvantages women.

According to Greenwald &Mahzarin (1995), there can be a repeated biased selection modes accrued to men and this yields to negative impacts on women. By being negative, the women perspective to high rank jobs is reduced. Bias organizational decision makers for a job candidate prompt them to prefer men to women who are equally qualified. They may rely on gender as an indicator for a general competence thus tending to favor men for their higher competence. An influenced decision maker on gender stereotypical selection process, make them develop personal perceptions for suitability of particular jobs.

In –group favoritisms can be operated in greater extense in cases of high status positions. Bearing that such high ranks have certain status and privileges that are higher than others of different positions, men are considered to have a greater incentive to hold their control.


Reference list


Burnnet, J. (1997).”An investigation of the Female-Male Wage Gap during the Industrial                        Revolution in Britain.” Economic History Review 50.n.p

Greenwald, A. & Mahzarin B. (1995).”Implicit Social Cognition: Attitudes Self-Esteem and stereotypes.” Psychological Review 102:4-27.

Stewman, S. & Suresh K. (1983).” Careers and Organizational Labor Market: Demographic Models of Organizational Behavior”. American Journal of Sociology 88.

Young Marisa C. (2010).Gender differences in Precarious Work setting. USA, winter publishers.


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