ID. Number:

Module Title:

Module Code:

Lecturer’s Name:

Date Due:



The Waterloo is one of the regions in Australia that are most culturally diverse. However, while the diversity offers a wide variety of social, cultural as well as economic opportunities and benefits it usually comes with the challenge of providing a police service in Redfern police station  that meets the needs and  interests of the entire of the Aboriginal community which is a minority one (Barak, Flavin & Leighton, 2001). Moreover, the new police officers will also be supposed to be easily understood as well as utilised by this minority and culturally sensitive community whenever a need arises. Therefore there is the need for the new officers at Redfern police station to work together as a team and build bridges between the police and  the Aboriginal ethnic community which is very crucial in ensuring the building of trust as well as cooperation  in order to eliminate the notion that had been previously held indicating the regard of the police by this community with a measure of unfamiliarity and suspicion (Howard, Newman & Freilich, 2002).

However, the new police officers at Redfern police station will be required to be aware of the role which is played by diversity within  the Aboriginal community they will be serving. Law enforcement will without any doubt be required to maintain the status quo under whatever circumstances (Solomons & Back, 1996). It is obvious the diversity often  serves as a source of stress to many police officers  working in  a culturally sensitive environment as  this one  but there should always the need for  realisation of the officers that  this  diversity usually raises issues that are actually extremely sensitive, delicate and important. Therefore the questions raised by the diversity do not obviously have a direct answer (Miller & Hess, 1998).

Moreover, as police officers you will need, to understand the importance of people from different cultures, races, ethnicities and languages coming  closer together with their enormous demands being made depending on their understanding as well as tolerance (Casey, 2000). Moreover, within the Aboriginal ethnic community there has been widening class divisions, more homelessness and broken families as well as growing anger among the disadvantaged group as a result of the impacts of their stolen generation which was characterised by mistrust and suspicion  between them and the police service (Barak, Flavin & Leighton, 2001). Therefore the entire of these social unrests usually presents  the most significant challenge towards the police-community relations within this region. Thus you as new officers in this police station will be required  to be  enlightened on the issues affecting the Aboriginal ethnic  community perhaps to be able to work amicably among them (Polynting, Noble & Tabar, 2001).

However, in most of cross-cultural situation we encounter on daily basis there will always be the need  for  reciprocal, or what is referred to as the two-way process whereby all the involved parties have a stake in the expected outcome (Dein, 2006). Moreover, in  the Redfern police station involved in the policing in the multiculturalism cutting edge  the encounters between the police officers and the people of the Aboriginal ethnic community might require more of this phenomenon (Casey, 2000). This is actually irrespective of the work  they are called to attend to which may include enforcement of law and order.  This will therefore be achievable when trust and cooperation is enhanced among  the Aboriginal ethnic community and the authority whose main representative in the region is the police  service (Barak, Flavin & Leighton, 2001).


The rights/privileges of the Aboriginal that are at risk during police investigations

However, during the police  criminal investigations among the group members of the Aboriginal ethnic community are supposed to be carried in the fairest way possible. Alternatively is is also possible to put some legal and civil rights of  the Aboriginal ethnic community at risk during the time when  the police are conducting criminal investigations amongst its members. The most paramount right  that is  likely to be  at risk is the privacy (Solomons & Back, 1996). During the investigations there are high chances that there would be an infringement of the right to privacy among the members of this community thus putting this crucial individual and community right at risk during the entire process (Dein, 2006).

There are  also high chance of  the incidences of  racial discrimination at times when the criminal investigations will be conducted within this group of people. Considering the historical background of this ethnic group it is apparent that it has always been a victim of discrimination on the basis of its racial and ethnic set up (Barak, Flavin & Leighton, 2001). Hence the recurrent of this phenomenon would be likely to occur  taking into consideration the previous relations that had been there between this group and the authority which is represented by the police service. Thus this would be one of the fundamental right which is also likely to be at risk during the police investigations (Miller & Hess, 1998).

Moreover, there is a likelihood of the risking of the freedom of association and expression  which are very fundamental rights to everyone living within the Aboriginal ethnic community. These rights are likely to be at the receiving end during the time the police officers are conducting criminal investigations (Howard, Newman & Freilich, 2002). For instance, there are high chances that  at times police officers will not give those under investigations an amicable time in order to adequately express themselves considering this their right as well as  a very crucial aspect of successful investigations. There will also be a likelihood of  restriction of those under investigations to mingle with other members of the community thereby depriving them of the crucial right of association (Polynting, Noble & Tabar, 2001).

Investigative behaviours/actions that are likely to risk the process of investigation

During investigative process by the new police officers  within the Aboriginal ethnic community there will be need to ensure that all the required procedures and guidelines are adhered to in order to improve the  credibility of the whole process. This is due to the fact  that there are some behaviours or actions that can be adopted by the police officers involved in the criminal investigations which can put the entire process at risk. For instance, lack of dialogue and effective communication will ensure that the acquisition of vital information is not possible since there is no free environment for the involved individuals tom open-up an give the required information. Alternatively prejudice will also be another issue which would greatly affect the investigative process negatively (Flaskerud, 2007). This is mainly because it usually contributes to the prejudgement of a person even prior to interaction with him or her.

Other investigative behaviours or actions that are also likely to extremely affect the entire investigative process includes the possession of an aspect of cultural insensitivity and understanding (Barak, Flavin & Leighton, 2001). This phenomenon leads to lack of respect to the existing cultural practises and values of the involved community contributing  to further hatred among the community members and the police officer which severely affects the investigative process. However, coercing should also not be used at whatever stage of the investigations since it would put the whole process at risk of retrieving the wrong information as a result of fear among those involved (Dein, 2006).

Investigative behaviours/actions that enhance the process of investigation

The main aim of  the policing is usually to obtain the most credible information from those involved during investigative processes. Therefore in order to achieve this they are always required to ensure that they abide to behaviours or actions that enhances the credibility of the entire investigative process (Casey, 2000). For instance, in order to obtain the most credible and helpful information in an investigation process there is need to ensure a creation of dialogue atmosphere through proper use of communication skills (Barak, Flavin & Leighton, 2001). Thus through communication the police officers are capable of dispelling fear and thus promoting creating of trust and rapport among those who are involved in the investigative process. Therefore by doing this someone will be able to ensure most reliable information is obtained  thereby ensuring the entire investigative process is successful (Miller & Hess, 1998).

Moreover, there is need to ensure collaboration between the police officers and the members of the Aboriginal ethnic community (Howard, Newman & Freilich, 2002). This collaboration will therefore enhance creation of a cordial relationship  in which the involved community will therefore be more willing to  avail any crucial information to the police officers thereby making their investigative process more effective and credible. Moreover, the police officers will also be required to adopt an understanding approach towards their investigative process mainly because they have to be faced with diverse cultural situations deserving an understanding for effective evaluation (Solomons & Back, 1996).


Strategies that enhance criminal investigation process despite ethnic and racial diversity

            However, as a result of ethnic and racial diversity within the Redfern police station located within the Waterloo region the police officers without any doubt require to come up with strategies of carrying out investigations within the Aboriginal ethnic community irrespective of the racial  and ethnic diversity within the region. For instance, the police officers will be needed to have the cultural knowledge as well as cultural sensitivity towards the involved group of people who are racially and ethnically diverse (Dein, 2006). The cultural knowledge is very crucial in enabling the police officers to actively learn about the community and its languages, ethnicities, immigration or migration history, origins, value systems and beliefs, social structures and roles, and so on (Flaskerud, 2007). All these factors will help them to adequately understand the community and know how to relate with its members effectively (Barak, Flavin & Leighton, 2001). Moreover, cultural sensitivity involves the ethic or the moral imperative to respect and value the norms, beliefs as well as the practises of that community. The is a very vital strategy in enhancing the credibility of an investigative process (Dein, 2006).

The other strategy preferably concerning the Aboriginal populations all over Australia would be promoting reconciliation among the community members and the police service against the invasion and discrimination they suffered (Polynting, Noble & Tabar, 2001). This would then reinstate the police service status as guardians of democratic values and win the trust of the Aboriginal people. This would greatly boost the process of investigations within this community. Another strategy would be coming up with police to community initiatives aimed at strengthening the relationship between the two (Miller & Hess, 1998). For instance, the police and community training (PACT) program aimed at improving the relationship between the police and the Aboriginal populations (Casey, 2000).

The rationale of devised investigative strategies

Depending on the data that  was collected during the interview with the Aboriginal liaison officer and the legal representative of the Aboriginal Legal Services attached in Redfern it became clear that the strategies adopted in enhancing the process of criminal investigations would be very effective and successful (Solomons & Back, 1996). For instance, the cultural knowledge and sensitivity would be very crucial in delivering death messages and intervening in domestic disputes among the Aboriginal community. This is mainly because in order to participate in either of the above you have to be close or well known to the involved family (Barak, Flavin & Leighton, 2001). Moreover, on this strategy gender is also another thing since men from the community would like to talk to male officers while women will be more willing to talk to the female officers. Therefore based on this knowledge it would be very appropriate adopting these strategies in an investigative process (Polynting, Noble & Tabar, 2001).

Moreover, the other two strategies such as the reconciliation and the police-community initiatives would greatly help in building rapport between the police officers who are the representative of the authority within the Redfern region (Howard, Newman & Freilich, 2002). Thereby after building the rapport it would be easier to retrieve any information from them as a result of the trust created among them and the police officers after the stolen generation when they regarded police officers with suspicion and mistrust (Flaskerud, 2007). These two strategies will also the shame and loss of face is no longer since the people will be free to share with the police officers. This would be contrary to the earlier times when the people from the Aboriginal community were not supposed to express themselves and after they attempted they were subjected to inhumane treatment. This led them to be shameful of themselves and isolated from other people which if not addressed would affect the investigative process (Barak, Flavin & Leighton, 2001).


The investigative processes are always very crucial in facilitating the acquisition of crucial information (Solomons & Back, 1996). Hence the entire of the process requires to be done in a credible manner which ensures the information obtained can be dependent on to make reliable conclusions (Casey, 2000). However, the police officers frequently involved in the investigative process needs to have required skills in order to effectively carryout this exercise in an ethnic and racially diverse communities such as the Aboriginal located in the Waterloo region within the Redfern police station considered throughout the report (Howard, Newman & Freilich, 2002).  








Barak, G., Flavin, J., & Leighton, P. (2001). Crime, inequality, and justice. In  class, race, gender and crime: social realities in America, (pp. 1-24). Los Angeles, Cali.: Roxburry Publishing Company.

Casey, J. (2000). International experiences in policing multicultural societies. International journal of police science and management, 3(2), 165-173, 175-177.

Dein, S. (2006). Race, culture and ethnicity in minority research: A critical discussion. Journal of cultural diversity, 13(2), 68-75.

Flaskerud, J.H. (2007). Cultural competence: what is it? Issues in mental health nursing, 28(2), 121-123.

Howard, G.J., Newman, G., & Freilich, J.D. (2002). Population diversity and homicide: a cross-national amplification of Blau’s theory of diversity. In J.D. Freilich, G. Newman, S.G. Shoham & M. Addad (Eds.), Migration, culture and crime (pp. 43-68). Aldershot: Ashgate.

Miller, L.S. & Hess, K.M. (1998). Dealing effectively with diversity. In the police in the community: strategies for the 21st century (2nd ed.). (pp. 174-192, 203-205). Belmont, CA: West/Wadsworth.

Polynting, S., Noble, G., & Tabar, P. (2001). Middle eastern appearances: “ethnic gangs”, moral panic band media framing. The Australian and New Zealand journal of criminology, 34(1), 67-90.

Solomons, J., & Back, L. (1996). Identity, hybridity  and new ethnicities. In racism and society (pp. 121-155). Basingstoke: Macmillan.


Written by