According to the April 9, 2010, Baltimore Sun Newspaper article: https://articles.baltimoresun.com/2010-04-09/news/bal-md.ci.comstat08apr09_1_compstate-ploice-department-s-operations-Anthony-guglielmi/2 “The concept has become a national law enforcement standard . . . but the meetings have been criticized by some officers who say they often evolve into browbeating. Commanders often take a day or more to compile thick binders of information and are holed up for hours memorizing fact so as not to be caught off-guard.” CompStat is short for Computer Statistics or Comparative Statistics that the New York City Police Department developed during the 1990s as a new business management philosophy or organizational management tool to map crime activity to create strategies that would reduce crime, improve quality of life while effectively applying resource management. CompStat has been utilized in Philadelphia, Chicago, Los Angeles and many other cities. However, CompStat has failed in Baltimore, MD. Why?
Based on your literature review and research regarding the use of CompStat in Baltimore, MD and the concepts of CompStat (resources such as www.compstat.umd.edu , Police Foundation’s “CompStat in Practice and in-Depth Analysis” available at https://www.policefoundation.org and Department of Justice “CompStat and Community Policing: Are they Compatible? available at https://www.cops.usdoj.gov/files/RIC/Publications/willismastrofski%20.txt ) can get you started on your research and analysis of why CompStat did not work in Baltimore, MD.
Your Case Study should provide the background regarding the origin of CompStat and apply research and analytic methodologies to assess the relevance of CompStat as a criminal justice management tool. You should also identify CompStat’s strengths and weaknesses and make recommendations as to how CompStat could have succeeded in Baltimore, MD. Provide your analysis and recommendations in 3 pages [single space, ‘Times New Roman’ font] report summarizing their assessments and recommendations.
Please use own words as this paper is submitted through a program to catch plagiarism before turning in. Use websites that I have provided. You can use one other source if you wish.
As a reminder, Case Studies answer the following questions:
Case studies research past events in order to identify all relevant data that had a bearing on the event as well as determining alternative outcomes based on different decisions and actions taken. Relevant data is collected and analyzed looking for lessons learned for analysts and decision makers. The case study researcher prepares an assessment of the past event or dilemma by identifying the intelligence problem, collecting relevant data, analyzing the data, and providing evidence to support their analysis and recommendations. The case study researcher will present their findings and recommendations, based on evidence that the researcher can defend their conclusions, to the course instructor. The course instructor will assess the researcher’s findings and recommendations based on the degree of critical thinking and reasoning skills that were used to prepare the assessment.
How to Prepare An Intelligence Related Case Study
Defining the Intelligence Problem:
A good starting point is to answer the “Five Ws” What, When, Where, Who, and Why.” A sixth related question should also be answered through analysis and that is, How. These questions are the basic framework that decision makers and intelligence practitioners utilize in identifying threats and intelligence requirements to develop strategies to detect, deter, respond to and mitigate threats to national security. Your literature review and research should address the following questions:
• What is the problem, or issue?
o Establish the historical and environmental context
o Identify the general dilemma or controversy
o Identify the policy debate
o Identify the intelligence support issues
o Identify what policy and strategies that were used to respond to the threat
• When did this event take place?
o Identify when this event was first noticed as a potential threat to national security
o Identify the when the first pre-incident indicators were notices
• Where did this incident take place?
o Foreign country
o In the United States
• Who are the key role players in this event?
o Identify the key role players during this event
o Identify those individuals who had intelligence support roles and responsibilities
o Identify those individuals who were responsible for policy and decision making
• How was the event/crisis handled?
o How did intelligence support policymakers or military decision makers
o How were policy and courses of action decided
o How were intelligence assets (HUMINT, SIGINT, IMINT, MASINT, GEOINT, OSINT) used
o How was information validated and determined reliable as true for policymakers and military decision makers
o How was the intelligence cycle (targeting, collection, processing, analysis, and dissemination) performed
Analyzing the problem
After collecting all the available data relevant to the national security issue, this data must be evaluated for
• Accuracy – All sources and data must be evaluated for the possibility of technical error, misperception, and hostile efforts to mislead
• Objectivity – All judgments must be evalu8ated or the possibility of deliberate distortions and manipulation due to self-interest (politicalization, militarization of intelligence products)
• Usability – Intelligence reports that are readily comprehendible
• Relevance – Information that is applicable to the current problem.
• Readiness – Intelligence systems that are readily accessible and responsive to the intelligence requirements
• Timeliness – Intelligence delivered while the content is still actionable
After evaluating your data for reliability and validity, you should analyze the data by using critical thinking, logical reasoning, and structured analytic techniques. Based on this analysis you can:
• Identify all possible hypotheses (Brainstorm all plausible hypotheses).
• Make a list of significant evidence and arguments for and against all the hypotheses
• Draw tentative conclusions about the likelihood of each hypothesis
• Compare your personal conclusion about the relative likelihood of each hypothesis with the inconsistent hypotheses
• Report your conclusions – discuss the relative likelihood of all hypotheses, not just the most likely one.
• Identify indicators or milestone for future observation.
(From “Analysis of Competing Hypotheses,”  Pherson Associates, LLC.)
Helpful Analytic Tools and Techniques
• Timeline – Prepare a timeline putting known events into sequential order. Helps visualize the “When, Where, What, and Who”
• Link Analysis – Identifies observable patterns and relationships between persons and organizations that can be graphically displayed in a diagram. Helps visualize the “Who, What, Where?”
• Association and Network Charting – Graphically displays relationships between individuals, groups, organizations, or resources as well as illustrating communication patterns. Helps visualize the “Who, What, and Where.”
Topical Areas to Address in a Case Study Presentation or Briefing
• Background: What is the problem/issue?
• Identify key individuals and organizations integral to the problem/issue
• Identify specific policy issues impacting on the problem/issue
• Identify what intelligence support was provided to policymakers and military decision makers
• Identify the facts and assumptions as known and the analytical hypotheses used
• Describe how intelligence activities supported the policymaker and military decision makers
• Describe the relationship between the intelligence agencies and policymakers and military decision makers
• Describe the impact of intelligence support on the outcome of the problem/issue
• Describe the impact of the problem/issue on the Intelligence Community
• Compare and contrast this problem/issue with other problems/issues
• Describe how intelligence support can improve to prevent or mitigate future problems/issues
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